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The American Revolution- The War

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The American Revolution- The War

1 Reasons for fighting the American Revolution

*Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. and Signing the Declaration of Independence.

2 2 Reasons why George Washington

*Had battle experience in French & Indian War was chose to lead against English * Was from South- more Southern support for war would be gained.

3 British Advantages

*Large population (6-1) *Money *Industry *Best armed forces in world.

4 American Advantages

*Cause to fight for (freedom, family, and home.) *“Home field” advantage. *Help from foreign countries.

5 English Strategy to Win War

* Win war quickly “quick knockout” (2 years). *Use loyalist support. *Use Indians as allies.

6 American Strategy to Win War

*Prolong war – send war into “extra innings” or “overtime.” *Obtain help from Foreign nations.

7 European Nations that Aided America

*France, Spain, Holland.

8 Reasons for Foreign Help vs. English

*Revenge against England for past defeats.

9 Continental Army

*Name given to the American Army during the American Revolution.

10 Patriots

*Americans who supported the war for independence from England (approximately 1/3 of Americans).

11 Loyalists

*Americans who remained loyal to, and supported England during the Revolution (approximately 1/3 of Americans).

12 Neutrals

*Americans who chose not to take sides or get involved in the American Revolution (approximately 1/3 of Americans).

13 “Sunshine Patriots”

*Nickname for those who supported the war when it was going well, but who did not fight when war was going poorly.

14 Hessians

*German troops hired by King George III to fight against American colonists.

15 “Common Sense”

*Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine persuading Americans to fight for freedom from the English.

16 The “Turtle”

*American submarine developed to sink British ships. It was unsuccessful but the first submarine ever used in the history of warfare.

17 Historical Mistakes in Painting

*Washington was not standing in the boat. “Washington crossing the Delaware” *Washington’s boat not in lead. *Flag shown not made yet. *Boats to small. *Blizzard conditions not shown.

18 Treaty of Paris (1783)

*Treaty that ended the war. It gave America freedom and all lands up to Mississippi River.

People (fought for America)

19 General George Washington

*Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. Brilliantly led America to victory and freedom in American Revolution (Became 1st US President.)

20 General Marquis de Lafayette

*18 year old French noble who voluntarily fought for America. *Excellent strategist. *Became almost like a son to Washington. *Gave 1,000,000 of his own money to help finance the war against England.

21 General Baron von Steuben

*Professional German soldier who drilled and trained Washington’s troops.

22 General Count Pulaski

*Polish cavalry leader (horse soldier) who volunteered to fight against the British. *Trained American cavalry. *Gave his life for American independence.

23 Captain John Paul Jones

*Best known American Navy hero in revolution. *Known for the statement “I have not yet begun to fight!” Also known as the “Father of the U.S. Navy.”

24 Thomas Jefferson

*American genius & chief author of Declaration of Independence. Gave Americans cause to fight. (3rd President)

25 Benjamin Franklin

*American representative to France who was key to winning French support for America during the Revolution.

26 Thomas Paine

*Helped win American freedom with “pen instead of the sword.” --Author of “Common Sense.”

27 Haym Solomon

*Jewish immigrant to America- gave $1,000,000 of his own money to help fight the British. He was never repaid. He died almost penniless.

28 Prince Whipple

*African American soldier who crossed the Delaware River with Washington (correctly shown in famous painting).

29 Peter Salem

*African American soldier who fought for America’s freedom. *Fought at Lexington-Concord—became a hero at Bunker Hill.

30 Deborah Sampson

*Young girl disguised as a man (Robert Shurtleff) (Robert Shurtleff) who fought bravely in American Revolution until she was discovered and discharged.

31 “Molly Pitcher”

*Famous American female who courageously took (Mary Hays) husband’s place in battle.

People (fought for England)

32 General John Burgoyne

*Developed the “master plan” to win the war (Gentleman Johnny) for England. Instead resulted in defeat and disaster for British in forests of New York.

33 General Lord Charles Cornwallis

*British general who was forced to surrender in last battle of American Revolution (Yorktown).


34 Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill)

*First major battle of the Revolution. (1775) *Fought overlooking Boston. *Won by British but at terrible cost- 45% killed, wounded or missing.

35 Trenton

*First American victory. (1776) *Christmas, 1776 *Washington, crossed Delaware-surprised & defeated Hessians- 0 Americans killed. *Saved American Revolution.

36 Saratoga

*Turning point of war against British. (1777) *Fought in forests of New York. *3- pronged British attack failed- over 5,000 British troops forced to surrender. *Victory convinced France to join with America against British.

37 Yorktown

*Last major battle- won by Americans. (1781) *Fought in Virginia. *Over 7,000 British troops trapped by American & French armies- forced to surrender. *Convinced British to end war.

Native Americans and African Americans in the Revolution

38 Native Americans in the Revolution

*Most native tribes fought on side of English. *British guaranteed them their land if they won the war. *After British loss, American settlers took over native lands.

39 African Americans in the Revolution

*African Americans fought on both sides in the war. *Hoped to gain freedom if their side won the war. *Nearly 15% of the continental Army was made up of African American soldiers.